The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park is the island of Elba, which can be reached by ferry from the port of Piombino. Its history is determined by two factors: the strategic position and rich natural resources. Therefore, this land has always been subjected to conquer by various Mediterranean states. The Etruscans used their rich mineral deposits, which later was continued by the Romans. In medieval times, the island was under the rule of Pisa and Piombino, and in the nineteenth century, after the victory, Napoleon Bonaparte, who, in exile, made it his home. Elba is characterized by sandy beaches, cliffs overlooking the sea, abundant fish and clear water.
In the eastern part, lower and more inhabited, olive groves, vineyards and fruit planting grow. From Rio Marina, the oldest part of the village in the area, along the ridge Monte Serra is Porto Azzuro, between the marina and the Spanish fortress of the sixteenth century Portolongone. A little further to the south there is the medieval village of Capoliveri, in the eastern side - the famous beach resort of Lacona. This is the starting point for a tour of two footpaths: one leads to the south to the Cape of Stella, another across the desert to Marina di Campo.
The western part of the island is mountainous terrain, with hills that rise to the top of Mount Capanne. The most beautiful beaches in this area are Cavoli, Fetovaia and Capo di Sant'Andrea. Marciana Marina on the north coast with its picturesque small port, houses and medieval tower Portoferraio, was built in 1100 in the center of the northern coast. The province is the most populous in the island and protected by a small bay. In Etruscan times it was a place of shipment of iron materials aimed at Populonia. It was Cosimo I de 'Medici, who fortified the village, turning it into a naval base. Features of the period of the Medici are presented in fortress of Forte Stella, Forte Falcone and Linguella. High above the city center there is the Napoleon Villa and Palazzina Dei Mulini, with a museum documenting the period which represents the life of Napoleon on Elba; and the fortress Fortezza della Linguella – the City Museum of Archaeology.